Test: Exam 1: Chapters 1, 2, 3, & 4 (2022)

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Automated college courses created from lecture notes, class exams, text books, reading materials from many colleges and universities.)Test: Exam 1: Chapters 1, 2, 3, & 4 | QuizletNAMEPrint test185 Matching questions Benefits of dimensional classification Types of Assessment: Unstructured clinical interviews qualitative research Intelligence test Benefits of categorical classification Termperament Serotonin treatment effectiveness informed consent efficacy Type of Measurement - reports from individuals Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis prevalence rates clinical assessments single-case experimental designs Amygdala What are some distinguishing features of Child/Adolescent disorders Independent variable = single-case experiments Genes guide what? Research What do emotional influences affect? mediator variable What is a neurobiological contribution? Intervention spectrum What is important to keep in mind for a clinical assessment? What are examples or protective factors? types of assessment: structure or semi-structured electroencephalogram (EEG) projective tests Behavioral genetics What can deprivation cause during early childhood? cultural compatibility hypothesis natural experiments prospective design effectiveness assent Protective factor What is the purpose of assessment? nomothetic mediator variables case formulation - develop hypothesis cross-sectional research ideographic What does emotion regulation derive from? real-time prospective designs Health promotion GABA Treatment approach to childhood disorders prevention Transaction What do? neuropsychological tests assess What developed in the early 20th century? moderator variable Externalizing problems Behavior analysis Cross-sectional research epidemiological research Screening tests cohort lifetime prevalence Neural plasticity Continuity Non-Shared Environment developmental history What are examples of risk factors? What do you need to consider when diagnosing? screening treatment planning and evaluation Social-ecological model of development Epidemiology multiaxial system Developmental tasks Adaptational failure retrospective design Nosologies Types of Measurement - reporters dopamine Neuropsychological assessment developmental tests Sensitive periods case study What are the research steps? Cultural considerations for treatment Types of Measurement - observations multiple-baseline design Cognitive distortions/errors clinical assessment Biological measures What is scientific research valuable for? categorical classification randomized controlled trials (RCTs) A-B-A-B reversal design Brain Circuits What theoretical perspectives can explain problem behavior? Competence Molecular genetics best practice guidelines Multifinality limitations of dimensional classification incidence rates Neuroimaging nomothetic formulation culture-bound syndromes DSM-IV-TR Scientific research requires that... Organization of development treatment efficacy Types of Assessment - behavioral assessment Frontal Lobes What are limitations of labels? multi-informant, multi-method approach true experiment dimensional classification scientific theory Applied behavioral analysis Social cognition Social Learning family history randomized controlled trials John Locke established what? Correlation coefficient Samples of convenience diagnosis Cortisol Discontinuity Treatment utility Etiology Neurotransmitters moderator variables What do genes influences prognosis How often should you do assessments? longitudinal research Internal validity Shared Environment Interdependent Psychological disorder Quasi-experimental designs/natural experiments Internalizing problems Prior to the 18th century, how was unusual behavior explained? target behaviors behavior analysis Etiological theory random selection External validity multimethod assessment approach treatment Gene-environment interaction (G3E) idiographic case formulation Developmental pathway random assignment reliability dependent variable = standardization Epigenetic Emotion regulation Family systems Stigma test What are benefits of labels? Research Designs Emotion reactivity Risk factor internal validity Equifinality What is a danger of ignoring science? Attachment semistructured interviews validity What is ideal for the tools used to measure independent and dependent variables? Epinephrine neuropsychological assessment intervention external validity Limitations of categorical classification analogue research experiences guide what? behavioral assessment longitudinal design Resilience Comorbidity Cognitive-behavioral approach maintenance cognitive deficienciesa A hormone produced by the adrenal glands that is released into the bloodstream in response to stress in order to energize and prepare the body for a possible threat. This hormone is also known as adrenaline.b participants followed over time, many data collection pointc biological, behavioral, cognitive, emotional, evolutionary, and family systemsd behavior, emotions, and learninge children learn as a result of relationships between a behavior and its antecedents and consequencesf most interventions are not tailored to unique culture or familiesg extent to which new cases of a disorder appear over a given timeh The processes by which emotional arousal is redirected, controlled, or modified to facilitate adaptive functioning.i The ability to adapt to one's environment. Children's competence involves their performance relative to their same-age peers as well as their individual course of development.j The concept that various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings.k absence of thinking (lack of planning, forethought)l Paths made up of clustered neurons that connect one part of the brain to another.m An experiment in which comparisons are made between preexisting conditions or treatments (i.e., random assignment is not used).naturalistic observation The unstructured observation of a child in his or her natural environment.n anxietyo understanding causes and characteristics of child psychology; finding effective treatments and prevent strategiesp outcomeq assess thoughts, feelings, behaviors, experiences (interviews or questionnaires)r The child's innate reactivity and self-regulation with respect to the domains of emotions, activity level, and attention; the child's organized style of behavior that appears early in development, such as fussiness or fearfulness, that shapes the child's approach to his or her environment and vice versa.s The hypothesis that treatment is likely to be more effective when compatible with the cultural patterns of the child and family.t gather information from multiple people across multiple settings; use multiple assessment methodsu The degree to which a treatment can be shown to work in actual clinical practice, as opposed to controlled laboratory conditions.v poverty, maltreatment, inadequate childcare and parenting, low birth weight, parental mental illness, severe stressful life eventsw refers to the mechanism or process through which one variable affects another variablex A research design in which the research sample is asked to provide information relating to an earlier time period.y organizing assessment information into antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to understand behaviors and potentially change themz distribution of disorders in populationaa A variable that precedes a negative outcome of interest and increases the chances that the outcome will occur.ab influences the direction or strength of the relation between two variablesac individual rights for those with disordersad attempt to organize existing information, to lead to greater understanding, to make predictions that can be tested in future researchae The methods of genetics that directly assess the association between variations in DNA sequences and variations in particular traits. More than an association, variations in genetic sequences are thought to cause the variations in the trait(s). These methods offer more direct support for genetic influences on child psychopathology.af The overlapping of two or more disorders at a rate that is greater than would be expected by chance alone.ag Recurrent patterns of maladaptive behaviors and/or troubling experiences specifically associated with different cultures or localities. These syndromes rarely fit neatly into one Western diagnostic category.ah someone other than the child is seeking help; may be caused by a developmental issue; may not be entirely abnormal; interventions often try to promote further development, rather than restoring youth to an early level of functioningai prevention - decreases the chances that psychopathology will occur, treatment - reduce symptoms and enhance functioning/developmentaj Research that evaluates a specific variable of interest under conditions that only resemble or approximate the situation to which one wishes to generalize.ak The study of the incidence, prevalence, and cooccurrence of childhood disorders and competencies in clinic-referred and community samples.al short test designed to identify at risk childrenam the large-scale structuring of the brainan Applies to the assumption that abnormal child behavior is determined by both the child and his or her environment, and that these two factors are interconnected. (Also see transaction.)ao A variable that precedes a negative outcome of interest and decreases the chances that the outcome will occur.ap A concept to describe the sequence and timing of particular behaviors, and to highlight the known and suspected relationships of behaviors over time.aq data collected at one point in timear A process of differentiating, defining, and measuring the behaviors, cognitions, and emotions that are of concern, as well as the environmental circumstances that may be contributing to these problems.clinical description A summary of unique behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that together make up the features of a given psychological disorder.as standardized, more reliable and validat an approach that focuses on detailed descriptions of specific events in particular time periods and settings.au An experiment in which the researcher has maximum control over the independent variable or conditions of interest, and in which the researcher can use random assignment of subjects to groups, can include needed control conditions, and can control possible sources of bias.av use of systematic strategies to understand children's problems and their causal or maintaining factors (ask a lot of questions to find out where the problem(s) are stemming fromaw early personality developmentax structured vs. naturalisticay The evaluation of the child's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in specific settings, based on which hypotheses are formulated about the nature of the problem and what can be done about it.az how a child thinks about self and othersba Often through religious metaphor (possession, demons, etc.)bb A broad concept that encompasses many different theories and methods with a range of problem-solving strategies directed at helping the child and family adapt more effectively to their current and future circumstances.bc (most common) gather general information from parent and child (history, presenting problems, etc.)bd The underlying biological changes to genetic structure resulting from environmental factors, such as toxins, diet, stress, and many others.be A method of examining the structure and/or function of the brain. Neuroimaging procedures include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coaxial tomographic scan (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and diffusion MRI (dMRI).prevalence rates The number of cases of a disorder, whether new or previously existing, that are observed during a specified period of time.bf The study of the causes of disorders. With respect to childhood disorders, etiology considers how biological, psychological, and environmental processes interact.bg A design used to evaluate treatment outcomes in which children with a particular problem are randomly assigned to various treatment and control conditions.bh The extent to which an intended manipulation of a variable, rather than extraneous influences, accounts for observed results, changes, or group differences.bi depression and OCDbj Research designs are the strategies used to examine questions of interest. They detail the ways in which a researcher arranges conditions to draw valid inferences about the variables of interest.bk Psychosocial tasks of childhood that reflect broad domains of competence and tell us how children typically progress within each of these domains as they grow.bl A theoretical position for explaining development proposing that normal and abnormal developmental changes are abrupt and qualitative. Discontinuity theorists, such as Piaget and Erikson, argue that children pass through developmental stages that are qualitatively different from each other.bm A clinical assessment that emphasizes the importance of obtaining information from different informants, in a variety of settings, using a variety of procedures that include interviews, observations, questionnaires, and tests.bn different structures of the brain regulate different functions and may be implicated in psychopathologybo A subtype of environmental influences that refers to the environmental factors that produce behavioral differences among siblings living in the same household. Nonshared environmental influence can be estimated and is calculated by subtracting the MZ twin correlation from 1.0.bp A cluster of negative attitudes and beliefs that motivates fear, rejection, avoidance, and discrimination against people with mental illnesses.bq related to emotion regulation and aggression; implicated in depression, anxiety, and autismbr Theory that the behavior of an individual can be most accurately understood in the context of the dynamics of his or her family.bs The extent to which a measure actually assesses the dimension or construct that the researcher sets out to measure.bt A factor that influences the direction or strength of a relationship between variables.bu the degree to which the changes in the IV accounts for the changes in the DVbv cognitive functioning, perceptual functioning, motor functions, emotions/executive controlbw subjects are selected because of their availability (biased)bx An approach to the prevention of disease that involves education, public policy, and similar actions to promote health.by A theoretical approach to the study of behavior that is interested in both overt behaviors and the role of possible cognitive mediators that may influence such behaviors directly or indirectly.bz A subtype of environmental influences that refers to the environmental factors that produce similarities in developmental outcomes among siblings living in the same household. If siblings are more similar than expected from only their shared genetics, this implies an effect of the environment both siblings share, such as being exposed to marital conflict or poverty, or being parented in a similar manner.ca manipulatedcb Failure to master or progress in accomplishing developmental milestones.cc A form of assessment that presents the child with ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots or pictures of people. The hypothesis is that the child will "project" his or her own personality on the ambiguous stimuli of other people and things. Without being aware, the child discloses his or her unconscious thoughts and feelings to the clinician.cd An intensive and usually anecdotal observation and analysis of an individual subject.ce Corrective actions that will permit successful adaptation by eliminating or reducing the impact of an undesired outcome that has already occurred.cf The assumption that early patterns of adaptation evolve over time and transform into higher-order functions in a structured manner. For instance, infant eye contact and speech sounds evolve and transform into speech and language.cg socialization, temperament (child's innate style of reacting to and interacting with the environment)ch An approach to case formulation or assessment that emphasizes general principles that apply to all people. This approach contrasts with the idiographic approach, which instead emphasizes a detailed representation of the individual or family as a unique entity.ci A form of assessment that attempts to link brain functioning with objective measures of behavior known to depend on an intact central nervous system.cj A method of research whereby the same individuals are studied at different ages/stages of development.ck (IQ test) determine if cognitive or learning problems are related to referral problemscl degree to which findings can be generalized to people, settings, etc.cm The concept that similar outcomes may stem from different early experiences.cn Activities directed at decreasing the chances that undesired future outcomes will occur.co The diagnostic systems that are primarily based on informed professional consensus, which is an approach that has dominated and continues to dominate the field of child (and adult) psychopathology.classification A system for representing the major categories or dimensions of child psychopathology and the boundaries and relations among them. One definition of diagnosis is the assignment of cases to categories of the classification system.cp Children referred for treatment often have more than 1 problem and it is necessary to collaborate with caregiverscq whether the treatment can work in clinical practicecr The process of establishing and maintaining an emotional bond with parents or other significant caregivers. This process is ongoing, typically beginning between 6 and 12 months of age, and provides infants with a secure, consistent base from which to explore and learn about their worlds.cs can create stigma or negative attitudes and beliefs that cause discrimination or negative reactions towards individuals with disorders; labels describe a pattern of behavior, not the childct continually assess the behavior, so you can monitor progress and present to client and caregiverscu psychodynamic - individual play therapy, work out problems/trauma through playbehavioral - unlearn maladaptive behaviors; change child's behavior by changing behavior of those in the environment (parent training)cognitive - change faulty thinking, promote adaptive thinking (challenge the thoughts to change them)Family - change and improve family relations and structure (behavior is influence by that of the family, may have to work on family relations or behaviors) biological - pharmacotherapy (use medication to regulate firing of neurotransmitters)Combined - >70% of therapists take an eclectic (combined) approachcv The prediction of the course or outcome of a disorder.cw Problem behaviors that begin during childhood and include anxiety, depression, somatic complaints, and withdrawn behavior.cx A stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands.developmental psychopathology An approach to describing and studying disorders of childhood and adolescence in a manner that emphasizes the importance of developmental processes and tasks. This approach uses abnormal development to inform normal development and vice versa.cy A type of single case experimental design in which a baseline of behavior is first taken (A), followed by an intervention phase (B), then a return to baseline phase where the intervention is removed (A), and a final phase in which the intervention is reintroduced (B). When changes in behavior occur only during the intervention phases, this provides evidence that changes in behavior are due to the intervention.cz cognitions mediate behaviors; antecedent => belief/thinking => behavior/response => consequencesda Interviews that include specific questions designed to elicit information in a relatively consistent manner regardless of who is doing the interview. The interview format usually ensures that the most important aspects of a particular disorder are covered.db Windows of time during which environmental influences on development (both good and bad) are heightened, thus providing enhanced opportunities to learn.dc participants are randomly assigned to either treatment or control conditiondd compulsory education, better health care, and taxonomy of mental illnessde participants selected prior to event occurrencedf system for classifying mental disordersdg the child's competence (ability to adapt and manage developmental tasks); the child's performance relative to same-aged peers and culture; chronological age; mental age; context of behaviors; pattern and duration; severity; and culturedh claims be based on theories from well-designed studies that can be repeateddi A task or set of tasks given under standard conditions with the purpose of assessing some aspect of the subject's knowledge, skill, personality, or condition.dj Problem behaviors that begin during childhood and encompass acting-out behaviors such as aggression and delinquent behavior.dk The malleable nature of the brain, evidenced throughout the course of development (use-dependent). Although infants are born with basic brain processes, experience leads to anatomical differentiation. That is, certain synapses of the brain are strengthened and stabilized, while others regress and disappear.dl prognosis and treatment planning, communication, financial reimbursementdm An approach to case formulation or assessment that emphasizes the detailed representation of the individual child or family as a unique entity. This approach is in contrast to the nomothetic approach, which instead emphasizes the general laws that apply to all individuals.dn Self-reports, other reports from parents, teachers, peers, etc.do the fine wiring of the brain (connections between neurons, more experiences can make more connections)dp whether the treatment works under well controlled laboratory conditionsdq Efforts to increase adherence to treatment over time in order to prevent a relapse or recurrence of a problem.dr whether those in a sample have ever had the disorderds A group of individuals who are followed over time and who experience the same cultural or historical events during the same time period.dt An empirically based approach to the diagnosis and classification of child psychopathology that assumes that there are a number of independent dimensions or traits of behavior and that all children possess these to varying degrees.du A regulatory system of the brain made up of the hypothalamus control center and the pituitary and adrenal glands; it influences a person's response to stress and his or her ability to regulate emotions.dv therapy leads to significant improvements; most children who receive therapy do better than children who do notdw Evidence of some form of agreement on the part of a child to participate in a research study without the child's having the full understanding of the research that would be needed to give informed consent.dx Generally viewed as a systematic way of finding answers to questions— a method of inquiry that follows certain rules.dy Tests used to assess infants and young children that are generally carried out for the purposes of screening, diagnosis, and evaluation of early development.dz Using a background questionnaire or interview, information is obtained from the parents regarding potentially significant developmental milestones and historical events that might have a bearing on the child's current difficulties.ea The process by which a set of standards or norms is specified for a measurement procedure so that it can be used consistently across different assessments.structured observation Observation of a subject, usually occurring in a clinic or laboratory, in which the subject is given specific tasks or instructions to carry out, and researchers look for specific information.eb facilitate communication and treatment; organize clinical knowledge; allows for standardization in researchec Direct Observation/Behavioral samples-in session and outside session-structured and unstructuredSelf-reporting rating scales-behavior is compared to normative sample of childrened The process, mechanism, or means through which a variable produces a specific outcome.ee Choose an area of interest, literature review, identify a research question, develop hypothesis, test hypothesisef A classification system consisting of several different domains (axes) of information about the subject that may assist a clinician in planning the treatment of a disorder. The DSM-IV-TR is an example of a multiaxial classification system.eg Behaviors that are the primary problems of concern.eh standardized (measures specify a procedure for administration so use is consistent), reliable (measures are consistent across users [inter-rater reliablity] and times/uses [test-retest reliability]), and to have construct validity (the instrument measures what it is designed to measure)ei The ability to avoid negative outcomes despite being at risk for psychopathology.ej A number that describes the degree of association between two variables of interest.ek comparisons are made between groups that already existel An electrophysiological measure of brain functioning whereby electrodes are taped to the surface of the subject's scalp to record the electrical activity of the brain. EEG recordings are sensitive to changes in state and emotionality, thereby making them particularly useful for studying social and emotional processes.em The process by which the subject and environment interact in a dynamic fashion to contribute to the expression of a disorder. (Also see interdependent.)en A method of research whereby different individuals at different ages/stages of development are studied at the same point in time.eo manipulation of IV within each participant (repeated assessments of behavior over time)ep broader general termseq childhood problems require understanding of the child's environment context; parents/caregiver, family socioeconomic status, sibling, peers, school, cultural valueser A single-case experimental design in which the effect of a treatment is shown by demonstrating that behaviors in more than one baseline change as a result of the institution of a treatment.es assesses problems in brain function that might influence thinking perception, emotion; used to assess learning disabilities, effects of brain damageet Systematically developed statements to assist practitioners and patients with decisions regarding appropriate treatment(s) for specific clinical conditions.eu Efforts to classify psychiatric disorders into descriptive categories.ev Complex interplay of nature and nurture to account for genetic and environmental influences and their timing.ew more objectively defined, often preferred for researchex An individual's expressed willingness to participate in a research study, based on his or her understanding of the nature of the research, the potential risks and benefits involved, the expected outcomes, and possible alternatives.ey lifelong deficitsez understand child's behaviors, thoughts, feelings, and circumstancesfa Individual: intellect, appealing, self-confidence, talents, faith, etc.Family: close relationships, caring, authoritative, warmth, structure, socioeconomic advantagesSchool & Community: social organizations, adults outside of family who invest in child's life, etc.fb all cases (new or previously existing) observed during a given period of timefc each person in a population has an equal chance of being selected (ideal)fd stigma, behavior doesn't always fall neatly into categories, children given same diagnosis may not share the same causefe An effort to identify as many factors as possible that could be contributing to a child's problem behavior, thoughts, and feelings, and to develop hypotheses about which ones are the most important and/or most easily changed.ff The assignment of research participants to treatment conditions whereby each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each condition. Random assignment increases the likelihood that characteristics other than the independent variable will be equally distributed across treatment groups.fg The degree to which findings can be generalized or extended to people, settings, times, measures, and characteristics other than the ones in the original study.fh The degree to which a treatment can produce changes under well-controlled conditions that depart from those typically used in clinical practice.fi make biochemical connections between neurons and can influence emotion, behavior, and learningfj what is the nature of the problem, the diagnosis, the cause and maintaining factors of the problemfk Identification of subjects at risk for a specific negative outcome.fl A research design in which the research sample is identified and then followed longitudinally over time, with data collected at specified time intervals.fm may get different information, may be insensitive to context, does not organize a constellation of symptomsfn dysfunctional thinking processes (negative attributions and pessimistic expectations)fo A pattern of behavioral, cognitive, or physical symptoms that includes one or more of the following prominent features: (a) some degree of distress in the subject; (b) behavior indicating some degree of disability; and (c) an increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom.fp The process of using assessment information to generate a treatment plan and evaluate its effectiveness.fq Area of the brain located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere; responsible for the functions underlying much of our thinking and reasoning abilities, including memory.fr organizes knowledge about the causes of disorder, different types based on theoretical perspective, implications for treatmentfs Information obtained from the parents about potentially significant historical milestones and events that might have a bearing on the child's current difficulties.ft can assess for difference between those with and without disorderfu A dimension of emotional processes associated with individual differences in the threshold and intensity of emotional experience.fv A type of research design most frequently used to evaluate the impact of a clinical treatment on a subject's problem. Single-case experimental designs involve repeated assessment of behavior over time, the replication of treatment effects on the same subject over time, and the subject serving as his or her own control by experiencing all treatment conditions.fw Research for which the purpose is to describe, interpret, and understand the phenomenon of interest in the context in which it is experienced.fx The extent to which the result of an experiment is consistent or repeatable.fy A branch of genetics that investigates possible connections between a genetic predisposition and observed behavior.fz you may use treatments that at their best don't work, worse treatments could be damagingga The identification of a disorder from an examination of the symptoms.gb A theoretical position for explaining development which proposes that normal and abnormal developmental changes are gradual and quantitative. Continuity theorists argue that development is an additive process that is ongoing rather than occurring in distinct stages.gc schizophrenia, ADHDCreate Study SetBack to your sets 185 Matching questions

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Test: Exam 1: Chapters 1, 2, 3, & 4 (2)

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185 Matching questions

  1. Benefits of dimensional classification
  2. Types of Assessment: Unstructured clinical interviews
  3. qualitative research
  4. Intelligence test
  5. Benefits of categorical classification
  6. Termperament
  7. Serotonin
  8. treatment effectiveness
  9. informed consent
  10. efficacy
  11. Type of Measurement - reports from individuals
  12. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
  13. prevalence rates
  14. clinical assessments
  15. single-case experimental designs
  16. Amygdala
  17. What are some distinguishing features of Child/Adolescent disorders
  18. Independent variable =
  19. single-case experiments
  20. Genes guide what?
  21. Research
  22. What do emotional influences affect?
  23. mediator variable
  24. What is a neurobiological contribution?
  25. Intervention spectrum
  26. What is important to keep in mind for a clinical assessment?
  27. What are examples or protective factors?
  28. types of assessment: structure or semi-structured
  29. electroencephalogram (EEG)
  30. projective tests
  31. Behavioral genetics
  32. What can deprivation cause during early childhood?
  33. cultural compatibility hypothesis
  34. natural experiments
  35. prospective design
  36. effectiveness
  37. assent
  38. Protective factor
  39. What is the purpose of assessment?
  40. nomothetic
  41. mediator variables
  42. case formulation - develop hypothesis
  43. cross-sectional research
  44. ideographic
  45. What does emotion regulation derive from?
  46. real-time prospective designs
  47. Health promotion
  48. GABA
  49. Treatment approach to childhood disorders
  50. prevention
  51. Transaction
  52. What do? neuropsychological tests assess
  53. What developed in the early 20th century?
  54. moderator variable
  55. Externalizing problems
  56. Behavior analysis
  57. Cross-sectional research
  58. epidemiological research
  59. Screening tests
  60. cohort
  61. lifetime prevalence
  62. Neural plasticity
  63. Continuity
  64. Non-Shared Environment
  65. developmental history
  66. What are examples of risk factors?
  67. What do you need to consider when diagnosing?
  68. screening
  69. treatment planning and evaluation
  70. Social-ecological model of development
  71. Epidemiology
  72. multiaxial system
  73. Developmental tasks
  74. Adaptational failure
  75. retrospective design
  76. Nosologies
  77. Types of Measurement - reporters
  78. dopamine
  79. Neuropsychological assessment
  80. developmental tests
  81. Sensitive periods
  82. case study
  83. What are the research steps?
  84. Cultural considerations for treatment
  85. Types of Measurement - observations
  86. multiple-baseline design
  87. Cognitive distortions/errors
  88. clinical assessment
  89. Biological measures
  90. What is scientific research valuable for?
  91. categorical classification
  92. randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
  93. A-B-A-B reversal design
  94. Brain Circuits
  95. What theoretical perspectives can explain problem behavior?
  96. Competence
  97. Molecular genetics
  98. best practice guidelines
  99. Multifinality
  100. limitations of dimensional classification
  101. incidence rates
  102. Neuroimaging
  103. nomothetic formulation
  104. culture-bound syndromes
  105. DSM-IV-TR
  106. Scientific research requires that...
  107. Organization of development
  108. treatment efficacy
  109. Types of Assessment - behavioral assessment
  110. Frontal Lobes
  111. What are limitations of labels?
  112. multi-informant, multi-method approach
  113. true experiment
  114. dimensional classification
  115. scientific theory
  116. Applied behavioral analysis
  117. Social cognition
  118. Social Learning
  119. family history
  120. randomized controlled trials
  121. John Locke established what?
  122. Correlation coefficient
  123. Samples of convenience
  124. diagnosis
  125. Cortisol
  126. Discontinuity
  127. Treatment utility
  128. Etiology
  129. Neurotransmitters
  130. moderator variables
  131. What do genes influences
  132. prognosis
  133. How often should you do assessments?
  134. longitudinal research
  135. Internal validity
  136. Shared Environment
  137. Interdependent
  138. Psychological disorder
  139. Quasi-experimental designs/natural experiments
  140. Internalizing problems
  141. Prior to the 18th century, how was unusual behavior explained?
  142. target behaviors
  143. behavior analysis
  144. Etiological theory
  145. random selection
  146. External validity
  147. multimethod assessment approach
  148. treatment
  149. Gene-environment interaction (G3E)
  150. idiographic case formulation
  151. Developmental pathway
  152. random assignment
  153. reliability
  154. dependent variable =
  155. standardization
  156. Epigenetic
  157. Emotion regulation
  158. Family systems
  159. Stigma
  160. test
  161. What are benefits of labels?
  162. Research Designs
  163. Emotion reactivity
  164. Risk factor
  165. internal validity
  166. Equifinality
  167. What is a danger of ignoring science?
  168. Attachment
  169. semistructured interviews
  170. validity
  171. What is ideal for the tools used to measure independent and dependent variables?
  172. Epinephrine
  173. neuropsychological assessment
  174. intervention
  175. external validity
  176. Limitations of categorical classification
  177. analogue research
  178. experiences guide what?
  179. behavioral assessment
  180. longitudinal design
  181. Resilience
  182. Comorbidity
  183. Cognitive-behavioral approach
  184. maintenance
  185. cognitive deficiencies
  1. a A hormone produced by the adrenal glands that is released into the bloodstream in response to stress in order to energize and prepare the body for a possible threat. This hormone is also known as adrenaline.
  2. b participants followed over time, many data collection point
  3. c biological, behavioral, cognitive, emotional, evolutionary, and family systems
  4. d behavior, emotions, and learning
  5. e children learn as a result of relationships between a behavior and its antecedents and consequences
  6. f most interventions are not tailored to unique culture or families
  7. g extent to which new cases of a disorder appear over a given time
  8. h The processes by which emotional arousal is redirected, controlled, or modified to facilitate adaptive functioning.
  9. i The ability to adapt to one's environment. Children's competence involves their performance relative to their same-age peers as well as their individual course of development.
  10. j The concept that various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings.
  11. k absence of thinking (lack of planning, forethought)
  12. l Paths made up of clustered neurons that connect one part of the brain to another.
  13. m An experiment in which comparisons are made between preexisting conditions or treatments (i.e., random assignment is not used).
    naturalistic observation The unstructured observation of a child in his or her natural environment.
  14. n anxiety
  15. o understanding causes and characteristics of child psychology; finding effective treatments and prevent strategies
  16. p outcome
  17. q assess thoughts, feelings, behaviors, experiences (interviews or questionnaires)
  18. r The child's innate reactivity and self-regulation with respect to the domains of emotions, activity level, and attention; the child's organized style of behavior that appears early in development, such as fussiness or fearfulness, that shapes the child's approach to his or her environment and vice versa.
  19. s The hypothesis that treatment is likely to be more effective when compatible with the cultural patterns of the child and family.
  20. t gather information from multiple people across multiple settings; use multiple assessment methods
  21. u The degree to which a treatment can be shown to work in actual clinical practice, as opposed to controlled laboratory conditions.
  22. v poverty, maltreatment, inadequate childcare and parenting, low birth weight, parental mental illness, severe stressful life events
  23. w refers to the mechanism or process through which one variable affects another variable
  24. x A research design in which the research sample is asked to provide information relating to an earlier time period.
  25. y organizing assessment information into antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to understand behaviors and potentially change them
  26. z distribution of disorders in population
  27. aa A variable that precedes a negative outcome of interest and increases the chances that the outcome will occur.
  28. ab influences the direction or strength of the relation between two variables
  29. ac individual rights for those with disorders
  30. ad attempt to organize existing information, to lead to greater understanding, to make predictions that can be tested in future research
  31. ae The methods of genetics that directly assess the association between variations in DNA sequences and variations in particular traits. More than an association, variations in genetic sequences are thought to cause the variations in the trait(s). These methods offer more direct support for genetic influences on child psychopathology.
  32. af The overlapping of two or more disorders at a rate that is greater than would be expected by chance alone.
  33. ag Recurrent patterns of maladaptive behaviors and/or troubling experiences specifically associated with different cultures or localities. These syndromes rarely fit neatly into one Western diagnostic category.
  34. ah someone other than the child is seeking help; may be caused by a developmental issue; may not be entirely abnormal; interventions often try to promote further development, rather than restoring youth to an early level of functioning
  35. ai prevention - decreases the chances that psychopathology will occur, treatment - reduce symptoms and enhance functioning/development
  36. aj Research that evaluates a specific variable of interest under conditions that only resemble or approximate the situation to which one wishes to generalize.
  37. ak The study of the incidence, prevalence, and cooccurrence of childhood disorders and competencies in clinic-referred and community samples.
  38. al short test designed to identify at risk children
  39. am the large-scale structuring of the brain
  40. an Applies to the assumption that abnormal child behavior is determined by both the child and his or her environment, and that these two factors are interconnected. (Also see transaction.)
  41. ao A variable that precedes a negative outcome of interest and decreases the chances that the outcome will occur.
  42. ap A concept to describe the sequence and timing of particular behaviors, and to highlight the known and suspected relationships of behaviors over time.
  43. aq data collected at one point in time
  44. ar A process of differentiating, defining, and measuring the behaviors, cognitions, and emotions that are of concern, as well as the environmental circumstances that may be contributing to these problems.
    clinical description A summary of unique behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that together make up the features of a given psychological disorder.
  45. as standardized, more reliable and valid
  46. at an approach that focuses on detailed descriptions of specific events in particular time periods and settings.
  47. au An experiment in which the researcher has maximum control over the independent variable or conditions of interest, and in which the researcher can use random assignment of subjects to groups, can include needed control conditions, and can control possible sources of bias.
  48. av use of systematic strategies to understand children's problems and their causal or maintaining factors (ask a lot of questions to find out where the problem(s) are stemming from
  49. aw early personality development
  50. ax structured vs. naturalistic
  51. ay The evaluation of the child's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in specific settings, based on which hypotheses are formulated about the nature of the problem and what can be done about it.
  52. az how a child thinks about self and others
  53. ba Often through religious metaphor (possession, demons, etc.)
  54. bb A broad concept that encompasses many different theories and methods with a range of problem-solving strategies directed at helping the child and family adapt more effectively to their current and future circumstances.
  55. bc (most common) gather general information from parent and child (history, presenting problems, etc.)
  56. bd The underlying biological changes to genetic structure resulting from environmental factors, such as toxins, diet, stress, and many others.
  57. be A method of examining the structure and/or function of the brain. Neuroimaging procedures include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coaxial tomographic scan (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and diffusion MRI (dMRI).
    prevalence rates The number of cases of a disorder, whether new or previously existing, that are observed during a specified period of time.
  58. bf The study of the causes of disorders. With respect to childhood disorders, etiology considers how biological, psychological, and environmental processes interact.
  59. bg A design used to evaluate treatment outcomes in which children with a particular problem are randomly assigned to various treatment and control conditions.
  60. bh The extent to which an intended manipulation of a variable, rather than extraneous influences, accounts for observed results, changes, or group differences.
  61. bi depression and OCD
  62. bj Research designs are the strategies used to examine questions of interest. They detail the ways in which a researcher arranges conditions to draw valid inferences about the variables of interest.
  63. bk Psychosocial tasks of childhood that reflect broad domains of competence and tell us how children typically progress within each of these domains as they grow.
  64. bl A theoretical position for explaining development proposing that normal and abnormal developmental changes are abrupt and qualitative. Discontinuity theorists, such as Piaget and Erikson, argue that children pass through developmental stages that are qualitatively different from each other.
  65. bm A clinical assessment that emphasizes the importance of obtaining information from different informants, in a variety of settings, using a variety of procedures that include interviews, observations, questionnaires, and tests.
  66. bn different structures of the brain regulate different functions and may be implicated in psychopathology
  67. bo A subtype of environmental influences that refers to the environmental factors that produce behavioral differences among siblings living in the same household. Nonshared environmental influence can be estimated and is calculated by subtracting the MZ twin correlation from 1.0.
  68. bp A cluster of negative attitudes and beliefs that motivates fear, rejection, avoidance, and discrimination against people with mental illnesses.
  69. bq related to emotion regulation and aggression; implicated in depression, anxiety, and autism
  70. br Theory that the behavior of an individual can be most accurately understood in the context of the dynamics of his or her family.
  71. bs The extent to which a measure actually assesses the dimension or construct that the researcher sets out to measure.
  72. bt A factor that influences the direction or strength of a relationship between variables.
  73. bu the degree to which the changes in the IV accounts for the changes in the DV
  74. bv cognitive functioning, perceptual functioning, motor functions, emotions/executive control
  75. bw subjects are selected because of their availability (biased)
  76. bx An approach to the prevention of disease that involves education, public policy, and similar actions to promote health.
  77. by A theoretical approach to the study of behavior that is interested in both overt behaviors and the role of possible cognitive mediators that may influence such behaviors directly or indirectly.
  78. bz A subtype of environmental influences that refers to the environmental factors that produce similarities in developmental outcomes among siblings living in the same household. If siblings are more similar than expected from only their shared genetics, this implies an effect of the environment both siblings share, such as being exposed to marital conflict or poverty, or being parented in a similar manner.
  79. ca manipulated
  80. cb Failure to master or progress in accomplishing developmental milestones.
  81. cc A form of assessment that presents the child with ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots or pictures of people. The hypothesis is that the child will "project" his or her own personality on the ambiguous stimuli of other people and things. Without being aware, the child discloses his or her unconscious thoughts and feelings to the clinician.
  82. cd An intensive and usually anecdotal observation and analysis of an individual subject.
  83. ce Corrective actions that will permit successful adaptation by eliminating or reducing the impact of an undesired outcome that has already occurred.
  84. cf The assumption that early patterns of adaptation evolve over time and transform into higher-order functions in a structured manner. For instance, infant eye contact and speech sounds evolve and transform into speech and language.
  85. cg socialization, temperament (child's innate style of reacting to and interacting with the environment)
  86. ch An approach to case formulation or assessment that emphasizes general principles that apply to all people. This approach contrasts with the idiographic approach, which instead emphasizes a detailed representation of the individual or family as a unique entity.
  87. ci A form of assessment that attempts to link brain functioning with objective measures of behavior known to depend on an intact central nervous system.
  88. cj A method of research whereby the same individuals are studied at different ages/stages of development.
  89. ck (IQ test) determine if cognitive or learning problems are related to referral problems
  90. cl degree to which findings can be generalized to people, settings, etc.
  91. cm The concept that similar outcomes may stem from different early experiences.
  92. cn Activities directed at decreasing the chances that undesired future outcomes will occur.
  93. co The diagnostic systems that are primarily based on informed professional consensus, which is an approach that has dominated and continues to dominate the field of child (and adult) psychopathology.
    classification A system for representing the major categories or dimensions of child psychopathology and the boundaries and relations among them. One definition of diagnosis is the assignment of cases to categories of the classification system.
  94. cp Children referred for treatment often have more than 1 problem and it is necessary to collaborate with caregivers
  95. cq whether the treatment can work in clinical practice
  96. cr The process of establishing and maintaining an emotional bond with parents or other significant caregivers. This process is ongoing, typically beginning between 6 and 12 months of age, and provides infants with a secure, consistent base from which to explore and learn about their worlds.
  97. cs can create stigma or negative attitudes and beliefs that cause discrimination or negative reactions towards individuals with disorders; labels describe a pattern of behavior, not the child
  98. ct continually assess the behavior, so you can monitor progress and present to client and caregivers
  99. cu psychodynamic - individual play therapy, work out problems/trauma through play
    behavioral - unlearn maladaptive behaviors; change child's behavior by changing behavior of those in the environment (parent training)
    cognitive - change faulty thinking, promote adaptive thinking (challenge the thoughts to change them)
    Family - change and improve family relations and structure (behavior is influence by that of the family, may have to work on family relations or behaviors)
    biological - pharmacotherapy (use medication to regulate firing of neurotransmitters)
    Combined - >70% of therapists take an eclectic (combined) approach
  100. cv The prediction of the course or outcome of a disorder.
  101. cw Problem behaviors that begin during childhood and include anxiety, depression, somatic complaints, and withdrawn behavior.
  102. cx A stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands.
    developmental psychopathology An approach to describing and studying disorders of childhood and adolescence in a manner that emphasizes the importance of developmental processes and tasks. This approach uses abnormal development to inform normal development and vice versa.
  103. cy A type of single case experimental design in which a baseline of behavior is first taken (A), followed by an intervention phase (B), then a return to baseline phase where the intervention is removed (A), and a final phase in which the intervention is reintroduced (B). When changes in behavior occur only during the intervention phases, this provides evidence that changes in behavior are due to the intervention.
  104. cz cognitions mediate behaviors; antecedent => belief/thinking => behavior/response => consequences
  105. da Interviews that include specific questions designed to elicit information in a relatively consistent manner regardless of who is doing the interview. The interview format usually ensures that the most important aspects of a particular disorder are covered.
  106. db Windows of time during which environmental influences on development (both good and bad) are heightened, thus providing enhanced opportunities to learn.
  107. dc participants are randomly assigned to either treatment or control condition
  108. dd compulsory education, better health care, and taxonomy of mental illness
  109. de participants selected prior to event occurrence
  110. df system for classifying mental disorders
  111. dg the child's competence (ability to adapt and manage developmental tasks); the child's performance relative to same-aged peers and culture; chronological age; mental age; context of behaviors; pattern and duration; severity; and culture
  112. dh claims be based on theories from well-designed studies that can be repeated
  113. di A task or set of tasks given under standard conditions with the purpose of assessing some aspect of the subject's knowledge, skill, personality, or condition.
  114. dj Problem behaviors that begin during childhood and encompass acting-out behaviors such as aggression and delinquent behavior.
  115. dk The malleable nature of the brain, evidenced throughout the course of development (use-dependent). Although infants are born with basic brain processes, experience leads to anatomical differentiation. That is, certain synapses of the brain are strengthened and stabilized, while others regress and disappear.
  116. dl prognosis and treatment planning, communication, financial reimbursement
  117. dm An approach to case formulation or assessment that emphasizes the detailed representation of the individual child or family as a unique entity. This approach is in contrast to the nomothetic approach, which instead emphasizes the general laws that apply to all individuals.
  118. dn Self-reports, other reports from parents, teachers, peers, etc.
  119. do the fine wiring of the brain (connections between neurons, more experiences can make more connections)
  120. dp whether the treatment works under well controlled laboratory conditions
  121. dq Efforts to increase adherence to treatment over time in order to prevent a relapse or recurrence of a problem.
  122. dr whether those in a sample have ever had the disorder
  123. ds A group of individuals who are followed over time and who experience the same cultural or historical events during the same time period.
  124. dt An empirically based approach to the diagnosis and classification of child psychopathology that assumes that there are a number of independent dimensions or traits of behavior and that all children possess these to varying degrees.
  125. du A regulatory system of the brain made up of the hypothalamus control center and the pituitary and adrenal glands; it influences a person's response to stress and his or her ability to regulate emotions.
  126. dv therapy leads to significant improvements; most children who receive therapy do better than children who do not
  127. dw Evidence of some form of agreement on the part of a child to participate in a research study without the child's having the full understanding of the research that would be needed to give informed consent.
  128. dx Generally viewed as a systematic way of finding answers to questions— a method of inquiry that follows certain rules.
  129. dy Tests used to assess infants and young children that are generally carried out for the purposes of screening, diagnosis, and evaluation of early development.
  130. dz Using a background questionnaire or interview, information is obtained from the parents regarding potentially significant developmental milestones and historical events that might have a bearing on the child's current difficulties.
  131. ea The process by which a set of standards or norms is specified for a measurement procedure so that it can be used consistently across different assessments.
    structured observation Observation of a subject, usually occurring in a clinic or laboratory, in which the subject is given specific tasks or instructions to carry out, and researchers look for specific information.
  132. eb facilitate communication and treatment; organize clinical knowledge; allows for standardization in research
  133. ec Direct Observation/Behavioral samples
    -in session and outside session
    -structured and unstructured
    Self-reporting rating scales
    -behavior is compared to normative sample of children
  134. ed The process, mechanism, or means through which a variable produces a specific outcome.
  135. ee Choose an area of interest, literature review, identify a research question, develop hypothesis, test hypothesis
  136. ef A classification system consisting of several different domains (axes) of information about the subject that may assist a clinician in planning the treatment of a disorder. The DSM-IV-TR is an example of a multiaxial classification system.
  137. eg Behaviors that are the primary problems of concern.
  138. eh standardized (measures specify a procedure for administration so use is consistent), reliable (measures are consistent across users [inter-rater reliablity] and times/uses [test-retest reliability]), and to have construct validity (the instrument measures what it is designed to measure)
  139. ei The ability to avoid negative outcomes despite being at risk for psychopathology.
  140. ej A number that describes the degree of association between two variables of interest.
  141. ek comparisons are made between groups that already exist
  142. el An electrophysiological measure of brain functioning whereby electrodes are taped to the surface of the subject's scalp to record the electrical activity of the brain. EEG recordings are sensitive to changes in state and emotionality, thereby making them particularly useful for studying social and emotional processes.
  143. em The process by which the subject and environment interact in a dynamic fashion to contribute to the expression of a disorder. (Also see interdependent.)
  144. en A method of research whereby different individuals at different ages/stages of development are studied at the same point in time.
  145. eo manipulation of IV within each participant (repeated assessments of behavior over time)
  146. ep broader general terms
  147. eq childhood problems require understanding of the child's environment context; parents/caregiver, family socioeconomic status, sibling, peers, school, cultural values
  148. er A single-case experimental design in which the effect of a treatment is shown by demonstrating that behaviors in more than one baseline change as a result of the institution of a treatment.
  149. es assesses problems in brain function that might influence thinking perception, emotion; used to assess learning disabilities, effects of brain damage
  150. et Systematically developed statements to assist practitioners and patients with decisions regarding appropriate treatment(s) for specific clinical conditions.
  151. eu Efforts to classify psychiatric disorders into descriptive categories.
  152. ev Complex interplay of nature and nurture to account for genetic and environmental influences and their timing.
  153. ew more objectively defined, often preferred for research
  154. ex An individual's expressed willingness to participate in a research study, based on his or her understanding of the nature of the research, the potential risks and benefits involved, the expected outcomes, and possible alternatives.
  155. ey lifelong deficits
  156. ez understand child's behaviors, thoughts, feelings, and circumstances
  157. fa Individual: intellect, appealing, self-confidence, talents, faith, etc.
    Family: close relationships, caring, authoritative, warmth, structure, socioeconomic advantages
    School & Community: social organizations, adults outside of family who invest in child's life, etc.
  158. fb all cases (new or previously existing) observed during a given period of time
  159. fc each person in a population has an equal chance of being selected (ideal)
  160. fd stigma, behavior doesn't always fall neatly into categories, children given same diagnosis may not share the same cause
  161. fe An effort to identify as many factors as possible that could be contributing to a child's problem behavior, thoughts, and feelings, and to develop hypotheses about which ones are the most important and/or most easily changed.
  162. ff The assignment of research participants to treatment conditions whereby each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each condition. Random assignment increases the likelihood that characteristics other than the independent variable will be equally distributed across treatment groups.
  163. fg The degree to which findings can be generalized or extended to people, settings, times, measures, and characteristics other than the ones in the original study.
  164. fh The degree to which a treatment can produce changes under well-controlled conditions that depart from those typically used in clinical practice.
  165. fi make biochemical connections between neurons and can influence emotion, behavior, and learning
  166. fj what is the nature of the problem, the diagnosis, the cause and maintaining factors of the problem
  167. fk Identification of subjects at risk for a specific negative outcome.
  168. fl A research design in which the research sample is identified and then followed longitudinally over time, with data collected at specified time intervals.
  169. fm may get different information, may be insensitive to context, does not organize a constellation of symptoms
  170. fn dysfunctional thinking processes (negative attributions and pessimistic expectations)
  171. fo A pattern of behavioral, cognitive, or physical symptoms that includes one or more of the following prominent features: (a) some degree of distress in the subject; (b) behavior indicating some degree of disability; and (c) an increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom.
  172. fp The process of using assessment information to generate a treatment plan and evaluate its effectiveness.
  173. fq Area of the brain located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere; responsible for the functions underlying much of our thinking and reasoning abilities, including memory.
  174. fr organizes knowledge about the causes of disorder, different types based on theoretical perspective, implications for treatment
  175. fs Information obtained from the parents about potentially significant historical milestones and events that might have a bearing on the child's current difficulties.
  176. ft can assess for difference between those with and without disorder
  177. fu A dimension of emotional processes associated with individual differences in the threshold and intensity of emotional experience.
  178. fv A type of research design most frequently used to evaluate the impact of a clinical treatment on a subject's problem. Single-case experimental designs involve repeated assessment of behavior over time, the replication of treatment effects on the same subject over time, and the subject serving as his or her own control by experiencing all treatment conditions.
  179. fw Research for which the purpose is to describe, interpret, and understand the phenomenon of interest in the context in which it is experienced.
  180. fx The extent to which the result of an experiment is consistent or repeatable.
  181. fy A branch of genetics that investigates possible connections between a genetic predisposition and observed behavior.
  182. fz you may use treatments that at their best don't work, worse treatments could be damaging
  183. ga The identification of a disorder from an examination of the symptoms.
  184. gb A theoretical position for explaining development which proposes that normal and abnormal developmental changes are gradual and quantitative. Continuity theorists argue that development is an additive process that is ongoing rather than occurring in distinct stages.
  185. gc schizophrenia, ADHD

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